The Indicators of Norovirus and Hepatitis A:
In Six Environmental Samples Types:
A Systematic Review
I worked with Dr. Juan Leon for my thesis in finishing my MPH in Global Health.
ABSTRACT: Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) are the two most prevalent enteric viruses that cause gastroenteritis in the US and globally. To test for these enteric viruses indicators, organisms developed assess fecal contamination, and are used in place of directly testing for the viruses themselves. The goal of this study was to investigate which indicators were most prevalent in each environmental sample of the agriculture environment, including water, faeces, food, soil, hands, and surfaces. This systematic review examines, from US and global sources, a comprehensive list of indicators used to test for enteric viruses. The results were organized based on environmental sample and indicator group, including bacterial and viral. A total of 297 articles were included in the database of results. Out of these, 67 were included for final review. 98 viral indicators and 92 bacterial indicators were found in at least 49 articles regarding Norovirus. 37 viral indicators and 27 bacterial indicators were found in at least six articles discussing HAV. The most prevalent indicator for Norovirus in water was E. coli and the most prevalent indicator of HAV in food was also E. coli. E. coli and Adenovirus were the most strongly connected with Norovirus and HAV. This systematic review demonstrates which indicators would be the most prevalent for assisting with identifying enteric viruses in the agricultural environment.